Kyrgyzstan located in a north east part of the Central Asia, in the center of Eurasian continent. The territory of Kyrgyzstan makes 198,5 thousand km2. Kyrgyzstan reaches 925 km., from the east to the West, and on 425 km., from the north to the south. Borders of Republic pass on natural boundaries: of the rivers and mountain ridges. In the east Republic borders on China, in the north with Kazakhstan, in the West with Uzbekistan, in a south west and in the south with Tajikistan. Northern breadth of republic 43 16 ‘ is close to breadth of Rome, the southern breadth 39 11 ‘ is close to breadth of Sicily in Italy.
Bishkek is the capital of Kyrgyzstan, and a residence approximately for one million person. Located at coast of the Chuy river, Bishkek is on the important trading way of ancient times and the present. The city in a counterbalance to rural landscapes surrounding its territory of an arrangement of new business structures and the organizations. Bishkek – one of the greenest cities of the Central Asia, its street are set by trees and bushes of 150 different kinds. In city it is a lot of cinemas, opera and ballet theatre, Kirghiz and Russian drama theatres. Interesting places of capital are: mosques and an orthodox cathedral, a historical complex of national hero Manas – Manas Ayly, study of local lore, zoological, geological, graphic and other museums, exhibitions of graphic and applied creativity, picturesque east food and ware bazaars.
Kyrgyzstan is the republic which has proclaimed the sovereignty on August, 31st in 1991. The head of the state is the President, the legislature belongs to one chamber parliament Zhogorku Kenesh, the executive authority is carried out by the Government of Kyrgyzstan, and the superior judicial authority is the Constitutional court.
The constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic guarantees a freedom of religion. The most widespread religions are: the Islam and Christianity, alongside with them exists much more.
State language – is Kyrgyz. It belongs to group of Turkic languages. Writing is based on the basis of the Russian alphabet. Equal in rights and free function of all other languages which the population uses is guaranteed.
The population is more than 5 million people. The basic part of the population makes Kyrgyz, Russian, Uzbeks. In Kyrgyzstan about 80 ethnic groups, such as Tatars, Dungans, Uigurs and Tadjiks who makes about 1 % from all population.
National currency of Kyrgyzstan is – the Kyrgyz Som.
In Kyrgyzstan some cultures prosper, but the traditional Kyrgyz culture dominates. Such culture is mostly concentrated in countryside’s. The Kyrgyz culture is a nomadic way of life, is based on origin- family union rich with traditions. Family-household traditions, developing during centuries, they reflected wisdom of many generations. Reverence of seniors, especially parents to assist the friend to support aspiration in a difficult minute and hospitable hospitality is distinctive feature of Kirghiz people. Many family-household traditions are connected with religious practices-magic.
In second half of XIX century Kyrgyz have two kinds of dwelling: portable and constant. In nomadic period the basic dwelling was portable Yurt in which there passed all life of the nomad. The wooden design and a felt covering of Yurt with centuries were improved by nomads; it easily and quickly takes into pieces on the separate components convenient for transportation and as quickly compactly assembled. At traveling the Yurt with all contents was regularly loaded on a camel, a horse or a yak. At its installation trellised sliding walls (kerege), consisting of separate parts (rope) are stretched on a circle; on Yurt of the average sizes are moved apart 5-6 rope, on greater – 8 – 12. The folding doorframe (bosogo) on which the swing door (êààlga) is hung gathers. Diameter of a circle of average Yurt is about 5 m., height – within the limits of 3 – 3,5 m. the Spherical part of Yurt make the sharper poles (uuk). They are attached by the bent end to top moved apart kerege, another – rest against apertures of a rim (tunduk). From the external part kerege is close a mat weaved from stalks of Chiy. The frame of Yurt tightly covered by felt, an earthen floor by – pieces of leather, woven oriental carpets, fur and felt carpets. Trellised walls are in strictly certain order hanged with a different sort of bags and bags in which are stored utensils, clothes.
In allocation and moving of members of family Kyrgyz adhere to century traditions. In the middle of Yurt is the place for the fireplace (Kolomto) which warms all premise. The inhabited space shares on four parts. A place opposite to an input in Yurt (tor) – is the most honorable. Visitors and the senior men of family here settle down. Here on chests constructed a pile of blankets, carpets, fur clothes. To the right of an output – a female half (Epchi Zhak) where products are stored, utensils, at the left – a man’s half (Er Zhak) where at once at an input accessories of a cattle breeding facilities are hanged out, horse and the hunting equipment. Yurt was lilted by means of a wadded match and the fat poured in the pig-iron or clay fixture (Chyrak). It put usually on a wooden carved support, the sharp end inserted in the ground.
Great epic poem Manas contains more than one million lines, in 20 times is longer, than Odysseys and an Iliad together taken, and in 2, 5 times is longer, than a Mahabharata. Having as a plot of all history of Kirghiz people approximately since 10-th century, the epos is the description of heroic feats of protagonist Manas battled with hordes of barbarians for creation of the native land for people. Before the death, in final triumphal fight he marries on wise Kanykey, daughters of the Samarkand khan. Continuations tell about feats of their son Semetej and his son Sejtek. On a course of action the epos includes colorful descriptions of an everyday life with its traditions, customs, festivals and funeral ceremonies. The professional story-teller of epos Manas names Manaschy. Skilled Manaschy was always the guest of honor in any house. Many of the most authoritative historic figures of Kyrgyzstan as, for example, Toctogul (in his honor are named city, the water basin and street in Bishkek), were Manaschy. Singing of chapters from the epos ideally approached to various situations, and today represents a core of the Kyrgyz representation about them.
Kyrgyz people highly appreciate music. Many festivals provide breaks between serving up of dishes for musical pauses when visitors by turns execute traditional melodies. Music accompaniment also has strong traditions. Riddles, proverbs, rapid speeches also take the important place in hearts of people.
The most esteemed Kyrgyz musical instrument is Komuz, the three-stringed pear-shaped tool made usually from wood of an apricot tree. Strings for a long time were done of the sheep veins.
Choor (tube) is a wind instrument, length 40-100 sm, with quantity of apertures up to 4. It can be made of a reed, wood of a honeysuckle, copper or other materials, and has nasal vibrating sound
Ooz Komuz (oral Komuz) it is small oral harp made from iron, a brass, bronze or copper. The sound proceeds from movement of small metal tooth.
Kyrgyz people usually arrange the national games during national holidays and on feasts. There are many traditional horse games: At – Chabysh (races on horses), Zhamby Atmay (competition in shooting from an bows), Kurosh (free-style wrestling), Tyin Enmey (picking up coins from the ground on full gallop), backgammons, Ordo (capture of Khan palace – game by means of Alchik).
In Kyrgyzstan live more than 80 nationalities. It is no wonder, that the various multiethnic habitants has influenced on assortment of national dishes and drinks, in particular, on the basis of Kyrgyz, Russian, Dungan, the Uzbek and Korean culinary traditions. The Kyrgyz kitchen plentifully uses meat, dairy products, dough, and it is a little spices. It does not concern to Dungan and Uigur food.
Among a variety of drinks one should be noted especially. Kumys is the most popular drink on Dzhailoo, prepared from fermented mare’s milk. Bozo it is the dense fermented drink from the millet, slightly aerated and used basically in a cold season. Zharma is drink from the fermented barley, used mostly in the summer time.
In industrial sector dominates mountain-mining industry: gold mining and processing of Oil-is the basic sectors of a mining industry. In Kyrgyzstan are available more than 400 deposits of precious and semiprecious stones, there are deposits: diamonds, sapphires, rubies, and topazes, emeralds, in a small amount: aquamarines, turquoise, rock crystal, malachite, jasper, a greenstone and agate. The basic emphasis of the industry of southern region of Kyrgyzstan manufacture of a cotton and oil cultures, woolen, cotton and silk fabrics. Stem-forming of economy of Kyrgyzstan are an agriculture and tourism.
Kyrgyzstan – the highland, borrows western half Tien-Shan mountain and a small part of Pamir. Both Tien Shan, and Pamir consist of the mountain circuits extended mainly in latitude a direction. The relief differs sharp high-altitude contrasts from 500 up to 7439 m. Absolute heights 4000 m. reach and more (6000-7000 m.) Here are located three highest tops: the greatest – Pobeda peak – 7439 m., Lenin peak – 7134m. and Khan Tengri – 6995 m.
Almost 90 % of territory of Kyrgyzstan lay above 1500 m. as a whole gradual reduction of heights from the east on the West from 4500-5000 m. up to 3500-4000 m. is marked
Climatic conditions of Kyrgyzstan are defined by its geographical position. The Most part of territory of republic settles down in a belt of a climate of the moderate breadths, southern areas are in a belt of a subtropical climate. Position of Kyrgyzstan in the center of continent of Eurasia, its remoteness from oceans and the seas, the neighborhood of deserts predetermine formation of a climate with features of sharp continentally and the dryness, precisely expressed seasons. The high mountains, causes increase in mountains of Kyrgyzstan of overcast and deposits. Significant rigidness of relief and presence of large Issyk Kul lake do a climate of republic extremely various – from sharply continental up to close to sea.
The mid-annual temperature of air in Kyrgyzstan changes from 10-13 degrees in low mountain areas, up to 8 degrees in high mountains. Influence of water weight of Issyk Kul on temperature of air of its coast is almost imperceptible. The average monthly temperature of July in Kyrgyzstan varies from 25-27 degrees up to 4 degree at height of 3600 meters. Absolute maximal temperatures of 43-44 degrees are noted in the north of Chuy valley and in foothills of the Fergana ridge. Monthly average temperature in January everywhere is below zero. Most warmly on Issyk Kul valley and in low mountain areas of the Osh region (-4 degree), a little below temperature in Chuy, Talas, and Chon – Kemin valleys (–5-9 oC). Even more coldly in hollows: Chatcal, Ketmentebe, Alay, (–10-12 degree). Ak-Saj area a cold pole of Kyrgyzstan: here the absolute minimum of temperature of air (-53 degree) is noted.
In Kyrgyzstan 6582 glaciers in the size more than 0,1 km2 are registered. Their total area is approximately 8047,8 km2. Glaciers borrow of 4,2 % of territory of Kyrgyzstan. The largest glacier is Enilchek the second-largest glacier in the CIS (length of 58,9 km.), Kayindy (25,8 km.), Mushketov (20,5 km.), Semyonov (21,5 km.) and others.
The rivers and lakes:
All the large rivers of Kyrgyzstan arise highly in mountains at glaciers and snowfields. Basic waterway of Tien – Shan is Naryn formed from merge of the Big and small Naryn. Length of river is -616 km., the area of basin is-53,7 thousand km2.
The most part of territory of Northern Kyrgyzstan is borrowed with a Chuy river basin having within the limits of republic length of 221 km. To the large rivers of Kyrgyzstan concern also Talas, Kyzylsu, Sarydzhaz, Aksay, Soh and others. In Kyrgyzstan 1923 lakes with a total area of a mirror 6836 km2 are totaled. Mainly (84 %) lakes are located in a mountain zone, within the limits of heights of 3000-4000 m. above sea level.
Three largest lakes Kyrgyzstan are –Issyk – Kul , Song Kul and Chatyr Kul. The Issyk- Kul lake is internal-drainage and the greatest internal-drainage reservoir of Central Asia and among the high-mountainous lakes of the world laying at height more 1200 m., on the area of a mirror (6236 km2) takes the second place, conceding only to Titicaca lake (Peru, South America). It fills a tectonic hollow between ridges Kungey and Terskey Ala – Too and has length of 178 km., the width -60 km., at length of a coastal line of 688 km. The maximum depth of lake is 668 m., average depth is 278 m. Lake does not freeze in the winter, except for shallow gulfs. Temperature of superficial layers of water varies from 24 degrees in the summer and up to 4 degrees in the winter. The lake is internal-drainage and also has the raised mineralization of water.
The second-largest high-mountainous lake Songkul has a mark of a level of 3016 m., the area of a mirror is 275 km2., the maximal depth is 15,1 m. Water in lake is sweet.
The Chatyr Kul lake is the third on size. A mark of its mirror of 3530 m., the area 175km2., prevailing depths of 2-3 meters. The Most part of year the lake is covered by an ice. Water in lake is salt.
In Kyrgyzstan there is a lot of glacier lakes located in a mountain zone within the limits of heights of 2500-4000 m. Among lakes of this group the Mertsbaher lake located between glaciers Southern and Northern Enylchek is allocated, on a surface of this lake it is possible to see icebergs. The lake, being filled with thawed snow, annually in the end of summer breaks down under a glacier Southern Enylchek, forming a high water.
Nature of Kyrgyzstan-is the nature of Tien – Shan. The flora of republic numbering about 4000 kinds of the ultimate plants, from them not less 1/4-endemics, that is anywhere plants not growing any more is diverse. Such variety of flora speaks of variety of mountain landscapes. In a vegetative cover of republic meets Northern, Central Asian, Indo-Himalayan floristic elements. In territory of Kyrgyzstan deserts and semi deserts, steppes, meadows and woods were generated.
In fauna of Kyrgyzstan it is totaled about 80 kinds of mammals, over 330 kinds of birds, 30 kinds reptile and amphibious.
49 kinds of fishes live in Kyrgyzstan, including acclimatized. The most numerous kinds of carps. The cores trade fish is Chebachok, Chebak, the mountain osman, marinka, sazan. In Issyk Kul lake in different years are delivered from various places a pike perch, Sevanian trout, and also bream, a carp, tench, a crucian, white-fish.
In territory of Kyrgyzstan rare and disappearing kinds of animals and plants brought in the red book live. Mammals: the Snow leopard, Dzheiran, the Red wolf, Manul, Tien – Shanian brown bear, etc. Kowtowing: a grey monitor lizard. Birds: the mountain goose, bustard, a golden eagle, balaban, etc. Plants: Semyonov’s Fir, Persian Mountain ash, Greyg’s Tulip, Kolpakowskiy’s Tulip, pink Tulip, etc.